Diagnostic Imaging: Oral and Maxillofacial

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ISBN: 9780443105319
Editura:
Anul publicării: 2024
Ediția: 3
Pagini: 1208
Categoria: Radiology

DESCRIERE

Bridging the gap between dentistry and medical radiology, Diagnostic Imaging: Oral and Maxillofacial, third edition, is an invaluable resource for new and seasoned radiologists as well as dental specialists and general practitioners currently using CT and/or cone beam CT (CBCT)—anyone who requires an easily accessible, highly visual reference in this complex area of imaging. Drs. Lisa J. Koenig, Dania Tamimi, Susanne E. Perschbacher, Husniye Demirturk, and their diverse team of oral and maxillofacial radiologists provide up-to-date information on the oral and maxillofacial complex from a dentist’s perspective to help you make informed decisions at the point of care. The text is lavishly illustrated, delineated, and referenced, making it a useful learning tool for readers at all levels of experience as well as a handy reference for daily practice.


Key Features

  • Covers the anatomic zones, imaging modalities, patient conditions, and presenting clinical signs and symptoms shared by dentistry and medicine
  • Incorporates complete and accurate dental anatomy and nomenclature throughout as well as findings that affect the many aspects of dental treatment
  • Includes sweeping updates throughout, such as a new chapter on the expanded use of artificial intelligence (AI) in oral radiology, a new chapter on ultrasound use for maxillofacial lesions, and new chapters on CBCT applications in implant planning, endodontics, orthodontics, and analysis of sleep-disordered breathing risks
  • Features more than 4, 750 print and online images, including CT and CBCT images, radiographs, ultrasound images, full-color illustrations, MR images, 3D reconstruction images, videos and clinical photographs
  • Includes 200+ diagnoses in chapters organized by anatomic section, with extensive coverage of TMJ disorders
  • Features more than 35 differential diagnosis chapters that provide a unique and intuitive method for interpreting pathology according to radiographic appearance
  • Contains comprehensive details on the anatomy of oral and maxillofacial areas, including embryology of the teeth to carotid arteries
  • Serves as an excellent review for the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology exam
  • Includes an enhanced eBook version with extended chapters featuring sonography images, anatomy, and deep dives into each topic or diagnosis; the eBook enables you to access all text, figures, and references, with the ability to search, customize your content, make notes and highlights, and have content read aloud. Additional digital ancillary content may publish up to 6 weeks following the publication date

 

PART I: ANATOMY Section 1: Oral Cavity 4 Teeth Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 14 Dental Restorations Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 20 Maxilla Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 28 Mandible Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 34 Tongue Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 38 Retromolar Trigone Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 42 Sublingual Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 46 Submandibular Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 50 Oral Mucosal Space/Surface Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD Section 2: Nose and Sinuses 54 Sinonasal Overview Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 70 Ostiomeatal Complex Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR 74 Pterygopalatine Fossa Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR Section 3: Temporal Bone 80 TMJ Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 88 External, Middle, and Inner Ear Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD Section 4: Base of Skull 96 Skull Base Overview Philip R. Chapman, MD and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 102 Anterior Skull Base H. Ric Harnsberger, MD and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 108 Central Skull Base Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 114 Posterior Skull Base Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 124 Styloid Process and Stylohyoid Ligament Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC Section 5: Cranial Nerves 130 Cranial Nerves Overview Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, H. Ric Harnsberger, MD, and Philip R. Chapman, MD 136 Cranial Nerve V Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 150 Cranial Nerve VII H. Ric Harnsberger, MD and Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 160 Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CNIX) H. Ric Harnsberger, MD and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 166 CNX (Vagus Nerve) Aparna Singhal, MD, H. Ric Harnsberger, MD, and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 172 CNXII (Hypoglossal Nerve) Aparna Singhal, MD, H. Ric Harnsberger, MD, and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 6: Cervical Spine 180 Craniocervical Junction H. Ric Harnsberger, MD and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 7: Suprahyoid Neck 192 Suprahyoid Neck Overview H. Ric Harnsberger, MD and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 198 Parapharyngeal Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 202 Nasopharynx and Oropharynx Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 210 Masticator Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 216 Parotid Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 224 Carotid Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 230 Retropharyngeal Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 234 Perivertebral Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Aparna Singhal, MD, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 238 Lymph Nodes Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 242 External and Internal Carotid Arteries Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS PART II: IMAGING APPLICATIONS IN ORAL MAXILLOFACIAL REGIONSection 1: Imaging Applications 250 Artificial Intelligence in Imaging Anatomy Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD and Kaan Orhan, DDS, MSc, MHM, PhD, BA 256 Introduction to Ultrasound Imaging Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Kaan Orhan, DDS, MSc, MHM, PhD, BA, and Hakan Amasya, DDS, MSc 264 CBCT Applications in Implant Placement Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Douglas L. Chenin, DDS 270 CBCT Applications in Endodontics Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 276 CBCT Applications in Orthodontics Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 284 CBCT Analysis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing Risk Factors Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Noura Alsufyani, BDS, MSc, PhD PART III: DIAGNOSESSection 1: Radiologic Patterns of Jaw Pathology 296 Radiologic Patterns of Jaw Pathology Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) Section 2: Teeth DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN SIZE AND SHAPE OF TEETH 306 Hypodontia Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD and Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS 308 Hyperdontia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 310 Macrodontia, Gemination, and Fusion Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 312 Microdontia Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 313 Concrescence Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 314 Talon Cusp Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 315 Dens Invaginatus Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 316 Enamel Pearls Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 317 Taurodontism Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 318 Dilaceration Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 319 Supernumerary Roots Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN STRUCTURE OF TEETH 320 Amelogenesis Imperfecta Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 324 Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD and Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS 326 Dentin Dysplasia Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 327 Regional Odontodysplasia Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD and Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS ACQUIRED ALTERATIONS OF TEETH AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES 328 Attrition Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 330 Abrasion Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 331 Abfraction Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 332 Erosion Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 333 Turner Dysplasia Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 334 Internal and External Resorption Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 340 Hypercementosis Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) TRAUMA 341 Concussion Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 342 Luxation Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 346 Dentoalveolar Fractures Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) INFECTION/INFLAMMATION 352 Dental Caries Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 356 Periapical Rarefying Osteitis Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 360 Periapical Sclerosing Osteitis Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 362 Periodontal Disease Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) MISCELLANEOUS 368 Gubernaculum Dentis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 3: Oral Cavity CONGENITAL/GENETIC 372 Submandibular Space Accessory Salivary Tissue Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Daniel E. Meltzer, MD 374 Lingual Thyroid Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Daniel E. Meltzer, MD 376 Oral Cavity Dermoid and Epidermoid Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Daniel E. Meltzer, MD 380 Submandibular Gland Aplasia-Hypoplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 382 Foregut Duplication Cyst in Tongue Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS INFECTION 384 Oral Cavity Soft Tissue Infections Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS, and Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR INFLAMMATION 388 Ranula Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR 392 Submandibular Gland Sialadenitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR 394 Oral Cavity Sialocele Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR 396 Submandibular Gland Mucocele Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS NEOPLASM, BENIGN 398 Sublingual Gland Benign Mixed Tumor Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 400 Submandibular Gland Benign Mixed Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 402 Palate Benign Mixed Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT 404 Oral Cavity Minor Salivary Gland Malignancy Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 406 Sublingual Gland Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 408 Submandibular Gland Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 410 Submandibular Space Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 412 Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 416 Floor of Mouth Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 418 Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 420 Retromolar Trigone Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 422 Submandibular Space Nodal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 424 Buccal Mucosa Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 426 Hard Palate Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD MISCELLANEOUS/IDIOPATHIC 428 Hypoglossal Nerve Motor Denervation Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR 430 Submandibular Sialoliths Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 4: Mandible and Maxilla NORMAL VARIANTS 434 Buccal and Palatal Exostoses Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 436 Mandibular Torus Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 438 Palatal Torus Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 440 Accessory Mandibular Canal Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 442 Mandibular Salivary Gland Defect (Stafne) Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 446 Mandible-Maxilla Idiopathic Osteosclerosis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS CONGENITAL/GENETIC 448 Cleft Lip and Palate Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Roya Sohaey, MD 452 Cherubism Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and Bernadette L. Koch, MD 454 Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 456 Cleidocranial Dysplasia Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 458 Pierre Robin Sequence Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Caroline D. Robson, MBChB 460 Treacher Collins Syndrome Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 462 Craniosynostoses (Crouzon) Kevin R. Moore, MD, Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 464 Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Kara G. Gill, MD, and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 466 Mucopolysaccharidosis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bernadette L. Koch, MD, and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 467 CHARGE Syndrome Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, William T. O'Brien, Sr., DO, FAOCR, and Caroline D. Robson, MBChB TRAUMA 468 Mandible Fracture Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS, and Michelle A. Michel, MD 472 Nasoorbitalethmoid Fracture Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS, and Michelle A. Michel, MD 474 Complex Midfacial Fracture Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS, and Michelle A. Michel, MD 476 Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fracture Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Blair A. Winegar, MD 478 Transfacial Fractures (Le Fort) Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, H. Christian Davidson, MD, and Kathryn E. Dean, MD INFECTION/INFLAMMATION 482 Mandible-Maxilla Osteomyelitis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 486 Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 490 Mandible-Maxilla Osteoradionecrosis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 494 Mandible-Maxilla Osteonecrosis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC CYSTS, ODONTOGENIC 498 Dentigerous Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 502 Odontogenic Keratocyst Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 506 Lateral Periodontal Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 508 Residual Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 510 Buccal Bifurcation Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 514 Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS CYSTS, NONODONTOGENIC 516 Mandible-Maxilla Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 520 Nasopalatine Duct Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 524 Nasolabial Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Kristine M. Mosier, DMD, PhD 526 Mandible-Maxilla Simple (Traumatic) Bone Cyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS FIBROOSSEOUS LESIONS 530 Periapical Cementoosseous Dysplasia Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 534 Florid Cementoosseous Dysplasia Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 538 Cementoossifying Fibroma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 542 Mandible-Maxilla Fibrous Dysplasia Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 548 Segmental Odontomaxillary Dysplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS METABOLIC/SYSTEMIC 550 Paget Disease Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) NEOPLASM, BENIGN, ODONTOGENIC 554 Odontoma Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 558 Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 560 Ameloblastoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 564 Ameloblastic Fibroma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 568 Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 570 Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 572 Cementoblastoma Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 574 Odontogenic Myxoma Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 576 Central Odontogenic Fibroma Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) NEOPLASM, BENIGN, NONODONTOGENIC 578 Central (Intraosseous) Hemangioma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 580 Osteoid Osteoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 582 Osteoblastoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 584 Mandible-Maxilla Osteoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 586 Nerve Sheath Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 590 Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 594 Desmoplastic Fibroma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT, ODONTOGENIC 596 Malignant Ameloblastoma and Ameloblastic Carcinoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT, NONODONTOGENIC 598 Mandible-Maxilla Metastasis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 604 Mandible-Maxilla Osteosarcoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 608 Mandible-Maxilla Chondrosarcoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 612 Primary Intraosseous Carcinoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 614 Central Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 616 Burkitt Lymphoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 620 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of Pharyngeal Mucosal Space Surjith Vattoth, MD, FRCR and Patricia A. Hudgins, MD, FACR 624 Multiple Myeloma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 628 Ewing Sarcoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 630 Leukemia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS TUMOR-LIKE LESIONS 632 Mandible-Maxilla Central Giant Cell Granuloma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC 636 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS 640 Bell Palsy Can Kocasarac, MD and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 641 Hemifacial Spasm Can Kocasarac, MD and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 642 Trigeminal Neuralgia Can Kocasarac, MD and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD AUTOIMMUNE 644 Systemic Sclerosis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 5: Temporomandibular Joint CONGENITAL DISORDERS 648 Condylar Aplasia David Hatcher, DDS, MSc and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 650 Hemifacial Microsomia David Hatcher, DDS, MSc and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD DEVELOPMENTAL ACQUIRED DISORDERS 654 Condylar Hypoplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 658 Condylar Hyperplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, and David Hatcher, DDS, MSc 664 Coronoid Hyperplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glas) 668 Hemimandibular Elongation David Hatcher, DDS, MSc and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 672 Fibrous Ankylosis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 674 Bony Ankylosis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) TRAUMA 676 TMJ Fractures Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and David Hatcher, DDS, MSc 682 TMJ Dislocation Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 684 Bifid Condyle Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 688 TMJ Osteochondritis Dissecans David Hatcher, DDS, MSc and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD INFLAMMATION 690 TMJ Rheumatoid Arthritis David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 696 TMJ Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, Lubdha M. Shah, MD, and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 702 Septic Arthritis Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 706 TMJ Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Kristine M. Mosier, DMD, PhD and David Hatcher, DDS, MSc DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 708 Degenerative Joint Disease David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 712 Idiopathic Condylar Resorption David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 718 TMJ Synovial Cyst David Hatcher, DDS, MSc and Peruze Celenk, DDS, PhD 720 TMJ Ganglion Cyst Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD DISC DERANGEMENT DISORDERS 722 Disc Displacement With Reduction Richard W. Katzberg, MD, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and Joanne Ethier, DMD, MBA, MS 728 Disc Displacement Without Reduction Richard W. Katzberg, MD, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and Joanne Ethier, DMD, MBA, MS 734 Adhesions David Hatcher, DDS, MSc NEOPLASM, BENIGN 736 TMJ Osteoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 738 TMJ Osteochondroma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, David Hatcher, DDS, MSc, and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) TUMOR-LIKE LESIONS 744 TMJ Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD 748 TMJ Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and David Hatcher, DDS, MSc NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT 752 TMJ Osteosarcoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Peruze Celenk, DDS, PhD 754 TMJ Chondrosarcoma Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 758 TMJ Metastasis Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS MISCELLANEOUS 760 TMJ Simple (Traumatic) Bone Cyst Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 762 TMJ, Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and David Hatcher, DDS, MSc Section 6: Maxillary Sinus and Nasal Cavity NORMAL VARIANTS 768 Deviated Nasal Septum Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) 770 Concha Bullosa Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) 772 Accessory Ostia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) DEVELOPMENTAL 774 Hypoplasia/Aplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) INFLAMMATION 778 Mucus Retention Pseudocyst Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) 780 Sinonasal Mucocele Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Philip R. Chapman, MD 784 Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener) Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Philip R. Chapman, MD 788 Sinonasal Polyposis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 792 Acute Rhinosinusitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 796 Chronic Rhinosinusitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Philip R. Chapman, MD 800 Odontogenic Sinusitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 802 Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD, and Michelle A. Michel, MD 804 Invasive Fungal Sinusitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Nicholas A. Koontz, MD 808 Sinus Mycetoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Aparna Singhal, MD NEOPLASM, BENIGN 810 Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH 814 Sinonasal Osteoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT 818 Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH 822 Sinonasal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C), and Michelle A. Michel, MD 824 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Aparna Singhal, MD, and Luke N. Ledbetter, MD 828 Sinonasal Melanoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH FIBROOSSEOUS LESIONS 830 Sinonasal Fibrous Dysplasia Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 834 Sinonasal Ossifying Fibroma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C), and Michelle A. Michel, MD Section 7: Masticator Space INFECTION 840 Masticator Space Abscess Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD DEGENERATIVE 844 Masticator Muscle Atrophy Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Rebecca S. Cornelius, MD, FACR NEOPLASM, BENIGN 848 Masticator Space CNV3 Schwannoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Rebecca S. Cornelius, MD, FACR NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT 850 Masticator Space Chondrosarcoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 854 Masticator Space Sarcoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 858 Masticator Space CNV3 Perineural Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD MISCELLANEOUS/IDIOPATHIC 862 Benign Masticator Muscle Hypertrophy Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD, and Rebecca S. Cornelius, MD, FACR Section 8: Parotid Space INFLAMMATION 866 Benign Lymphoepithelial Cysts-HIV Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Philip R. Chapman, MD, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 870 Parotid Sialadenitis Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS NEOPLASM, BENIGN 872 Parotid Benign Mixed Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 876 Warthin Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD, and H. Ric Harnsberger, MD 880 Parotid Schwannoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Hilda E. Stambuk, MD NEOPLASM, MALIGNANT 882 Parotid Malignant Mixed Tumor Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 884 Parotid Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 888 Parotid Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD, and Barton F. Branstetter, IV, MD, FACR 890 Parotid Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 894 Metastatic Disease of Parotid Nodes Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD AUTOIMMUNE 898 Parotid Sjögren Syndrome Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 902 Invasive Pseudotumor (IgG4-Related Disease) Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) MISCELLANEOUS/IDIOPATHIC 904 Parotid Sialoliths Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS Section 9: Cervical Spine DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS 908 C2-C3 Fusion Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 910 Klippel-Feil Spectrum Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Kevin R. Moore, MD 912 C1 Assimilation Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 914 Ponticulus Posticus Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 916 Ossiculum Terminale Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 918 Split Atlas Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 920 Os Odontoideum Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Kevin R. Moore, MD, and Jeffrey S. Ross, MD 924 Os Avis (Fused to Clivus) Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 926 Odontoid Hypoplasia/Aplasia Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 928 Failure of Formation Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD 932 Failure of Segmentation Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Kevin R. Moore, MD DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS 936 Degenerative Arthritis of CVJ Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA and Noura Alsufyani, BDS, MSc, PhD 940 Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA, and Noura Alsufyani, BDS, MSc, PhD 944 Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA, and Noura Alsufyani, BDS, MSc, PhD 948 Cervical Facet Arthropathy Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Jeffrey S. Ross, MD, and Noura Alsufyani, BDS, MSc, PhD TUMOR AND TUMOR-LIKE LESIONS 952 Hemangioma, Cervical Spine Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA 956 Lytic and Blastic Metastases Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) and Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA FIBROOSSEOUS 960 Fibrous Dysplasia, Cervical Spine Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA, and Julia R. Crim, MD MISCELLANEOUS 962 Tumoral Calcinosis Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg), Jeffrey S. Ross, MD, and Lubdha M. Shah, MD PART IV: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSESSection 1: Teeth ALTERATIONS IN TOOTH NUMBER 966 Extra Teeth Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 968 Missing Teeth Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS ALTERATIONS IN TOOTH MORPHOLOGY/SHAPE 970 Crown Changes Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 972 Root Changes Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS Section 2: Mandible and Maxilla ALTERATIONS IN SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF TEETH 978 Periapical Radiolucencies Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 982 Periapical Radiopacities and Mixed Lesions Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 984 Floating Teeth Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 986 Widened Periodontal Ligament Space Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 988 Lamina Dura Changes Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS RADIOLUCENCIES 992 Well-Defined Unilocular Radiolucencies Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 996 Pericoronal Radiolucencies Without Radiopacities Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 998 Pericoronal Radiolucencies With Radiopacities Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS 1000 Multilocular Radiolucencies Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 1004 Ill-Defined Radiolucencies Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 1010 Generalized Rarefaction Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) RADIOPACITIES 1014 Well-Defined Radiopacities Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS 1018 Ground-Glass and Granular Radiopacities Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 1024 Generalized Radiopacities Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) PERIOSTEAL REACTIONS 1028 Periosteal Reactions Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) Section 3: Oral Cavity ANATOMICALLY BASED LESIONS 1036 Submandibular Space Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bernadette L. Koch, MD 1042 Parotid Space Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD 1048 Sublingual Space Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 1052 Oral Mucosal Space/Surface Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Byron W. Benson, DDS, MS 1056 Root-of-Tongue Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Bernadette L. Koch, MD, and Jolanta M. Dennis, MD MISCELLANEOUS 1060 Soft Tissue Calcifications Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS, and Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS Section 4: Temporomandibular Joint CHANGES IN CONDYLAR SIZE AND FUNCTION 1066 Small Condyle Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 1072 Large Condyle Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) 1076 Limited Condylar Translation Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) MASS LESIONS 1080 TMJ Radiolucencies Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC and C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) 1082 TMJ Radiopacities Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) MISCELLANEOUS 1086 TMJ Articular Loose Bodies Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCDC, C. Grace Petrikowski, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), and Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, FDS, RCPS (Glasg) Section 5: Maxillary Sinus and Nasal Cavity NASAL LESIONS 1090 Nasal Septal Perforation Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Luke N. Ledbetter, MD, and Michelle A. Michel, MD 1092 Nasal Lesions Without Bone Destruction Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Michelle A. Michel, MD, and Daniel E. Meltzer, MD 1096 Nasal Lesions With Bone Destruction Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) 1100 Sinonasal Fibroosseous and Cartilaginous Lesions Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) SINUS LESIONS 1102 Paranasal Sinus Lesions Without Bone Destruction Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS and Axel Ruprecht, DDS, MScD, FRCD(C) 1106 Paranasal Sinus Lesions With Bone Destruction Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Daniel E. Meltzer, MD, and Michelle A. Michel, MD MISCELLANEOUS 1110 Displaced Dental Structures Into Antrum Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS Section 6: Cervical Spine 1114 Odontoid Deformity Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Jeffrey S. Ross, MD, and Julia R. Crim, MD


Author Information

By Lisa J. Koenig, BChD, DDS, MS, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Professor, Oral Medicine and Oral Radiology, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Dania Tamimi, BDS, DMSc, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Consultant, Private Practice, Orlando, Florida; Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics and Digital Technology, Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook, New York; Adjunct Assistant Professor, College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, Nevada; Susanne E. Perschbacher, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C), Assistant Professor, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Toronto, Faculty of Dentistry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream; Husniye Demirturk, DDS, MS, PhD, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of General Dental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Consultant, Private Practice, Wexford, Pennsylvania.

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